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artofwar [2013/01/27 21:29] (current)
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 +<H3 ALIGN''​CENTER>​SUN TZU ON THE ART OF WAR <​BR>​THE OLDEST MILITARY
 +TREATISE IN THE WORLD<​BR><​IMG SRC''"​http://​www.chinapage.com/​logo14.gif"​ NAME''"​graphics1"​ ALIGN''​BOTTOM WIDTH''​80 HEIGHT''​20 BORDER''​0>​
 +<​BR>​Translated from the Chinese<​BR>​By LIONEL GILES, M.A. (1910)</​H3>​
 +<PRE STYLE''"​text-align:​ center">​
  
 +
 +<A NAME''"​01"></​A>​I. LAYING PLANS
 +
 +
 + 1. Sun Tzu said:  The art of war is of vital importance
 +    to the State.
 +
 + 2. It is a matter of life and death, a road either
 +    to safety or to ruin.  Hence it is a subject of inquiry
 +    which can on no account be neglected.
 +
 + 3. The art of war, then, is governed by five constant
 +    factors, to be taken into account in one's deliberations,​
 +    when seeking to determine the conditions obtaining in the field.
 +
 + 4. These are:  (1) The Moral Law; (2) Heaven; (3) Earth;
 +    (4) The Commander; (5) Method and discipline.
 +
 +5,6. The Moral Law causes the people to be in complete
 +    accord with their ruler, so that they will follow him
 +    regardless of their lives, undismayed by any danger.
 +
 + 7. Heaven signifies night and day, cold and heat,
 +    times and seasons.
 +
 + 8. Earth comprises distances, great and small;
 +    danger and security; open ground and narrow passes;
 +    the chances of life and death.
 +
 + 9. The Commander stands for the virtues of wisdom,
 +    sincerely, benevolence,​ courage and strictness.
 +
 +10. By method and discipline are to be understood
 +    the marshaling of the army in its proper subdivisions,​
 +    the graduations of rank among the officers, the maintenance
 +    of roads by which supplies may reach the army, and the
 +    control of military expenditure.
 +
 +11. These five heads should be familiar to every general: ​
 +    he who knows them will be victorious; he who knows them
 +    not will fail.
 +
 +12. Therefore, in your deliberations,​ when seeking
 +    to determine the military conditions, let them be made
 +    the basis of a comparison, in this wise:--
 +
 +13. (1) Which of the two sovereigns is imbued
 +        with the Moral law?
 +    (2) Which of the two generals has most ability?
 +    (3) With whom lie the advantages derived from Heaven
 +        and Earth?
 +    (4) On which side is discipline most rigorously enforced?
 +    (5) Which army is stronger?
 +    (6) On which side are officers and men more highly trained?
 +    (7) In which army is there the greater constancy
 +        both in reward and punishment?
 +
 +14. By means of these seven considerations I can
 +    forecast victory or defeat.
 +
 +15. The general that hearkens to my counsel and acts
 +    upon it, will conquer: ​ let such a one be retained in command! ​
 +    The general that hearkens not to my counsel nor acts upon it,
 +    will suffer defeat:​--let such a one be dismissed!
 +
 +16. While heading the profit of my counsel,
 +    avail yourself also of any helpful circumstances
 +    over and beyond the ordinary rules.
 +
 +17. According as circumstances are favorable,
 +    one should modify one's plans.
 +
 +18. All warfare is based on deception.
 +
 +19. Hence, when able to attack, we must seem unable;
 +    when using our forces, we must seem inactive; when we
 +    are near, we must make the enemy believe we are far away;
 +    when far away, we must make him believe we are near.
 +
 +20. Hold out baits to entice the enemy. ​ Feign disorder,
 +    and crush him.
 +
 +21. If he is secure at all points, be prepared for him. 
 +    If he is in superior strength, evade him.
 +
 +22. If your opponent is of choleric temper, seek to
 +    irritate him.  Pretend to be weak, that he may grow arrogant.
 +
 +23. If he is taking his ease, give him no rest. 
 +    If his forces are united, separate them.
 +
 +24. Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where
 +    you are not expected.
 +
 +25. These military devices, leading to victory,
 +    must not be divulged beforehand.
 +
 +26. Now the general who wins a battle makes many
 +    calculations in his temple ere the battle is fought. ​
 +    The general who loses a battle makes but few
 +    calculations beforehand. ​ Thus do many calculations
 +    lead to victory, and few calculations to defeat: ​
 +    how much more no calculation at all!  It is by attention
 +    to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose.
 +[To Chinese text |To Top]
 +
 +<A NAME''"​02"></​A>​
 +
 +II. WAGING WAR
 +
 +
 + 1. Sun Tzu said:  In the operations of war,
 +    where there are in the field a thousand swift chariots,
 +    as many heavy chariots, and a hundred thousand
 +    mail-clad soldiers, with provisions enough to carry them
 +    a thousand li, the expenditure at home and at the front,
 +    including entertainment of guests, small items such as
 +    glue and paint, and sums spent on chariots and armor,
 +    will reach the total of a thousand ounces of silver per day. 
 +    Such is the cost of raising an army of 100,000 men.
 +
 + 2. When you engage in actual fighting, if victory
 +    is long in coming, then men's weapons will grow dull and
 +    their ardor will be damped. ​ If you lay siege to a town,
 +    you will exhaust your strength.
 + 3. Again, if the campaign is protracted, the resources
 +    of the State will not be equal to the strain.
 +
 + 4. Now, when your weapons are dulled, your ardor damped,
 +    your strength exhausted and your treasure spent,
 +    other chieftains will spring up to take advantage
 +    of your extremity. ​ Then no man, however wise,
 +    will be able to avert the consequences that must ensue.
 +
 + 5. Thus, though we have heard of stupid haste in war,
 +    cleverness has never been seen associated with long delays.
 +
 + 6. There is no instance of a country having benefited
 +    from prolonged warfare.
 +
 + 7. It is only one who is thoroughly acquainted
 +    with the evils of war that can thoroughly understand
 +    the profitable way of carrying it on.
 +
 + 8. The skillful soldier does not raise a second levy,
 +    neither are his supply-wagons loaded more than twice.
 +
 + 9. Bring war material with you from home, but forage
 +    on the enemy. ​ Thus the army will have food enough
 +    for its needs.
 +
 +10. Poverty of the State exchequer causes an army
 +    to be maintained by contributions from a distance. ​
 +    Contributing to maintain an army at a distance causes
 +    the people to be impoverished.
 +
 +11. On the other hand, the proximity of an army causes
 +    prices to go up; and high prices cause the people'​s
 +    substance to be drained away.
 +
 +12. When their substance is drained away, the peasantry
 +    will be afflicted by heavy exactions.
 +
 +13,14. With this loss of substance and exhaustion
 +    of strength, the homes of the people will be stripped bare,
 +    and three-tenths of their income will be dissipated;
 +    while government expenses for broken chariots, worn-out horses,
 +    breast-plates and helmets, bows and arrows, spears and shields,
 +    protective mantles, draught-oxen and heavy wagons,
 +    will amount to four-tenths of its total revenue.
 +
 +15. Hence a wise general makes a point of foraging
 +    on the enemy. ​ One cartload of the enemy'​s provisions
 +    is equivalent to twenty of one's own, and likewise
 +    a single picul of his provender is equivalent to twenty
 +    from one's own store.
 +
 +16. Now in order to kill the enemy, our men must
 +    be roused to anger; that there may be advantage from
 +    defeating the enemy, they must have their rewards.
 +
 +17. Therefore in chariot fighting, when ten or more chariots
 +    have been taken, those should be rewarded who took the first. ​
 +    Our own flags should be substituted for those of the enemy,
 +    and the chariots mingled and used in conjunction with ours. 
 +    The captured soldiers should be kindly treated and kept.
 +
 +18. This is called, using the conquered foe to augment
 +    one's own strength.
 +
 +19. In war, then, let your great object be victory,
 +    not lengthy campaigns.
 +
 +20. Thus it may be known that the leader of armies
 +    is the arbiter of the people'​s fate, the man on whom it
 +    depends whether the nation shall be in peace or in peril.
 +[To Chinese text |To Top]
 +
 +
 +<A NAME''"​03"></​A>​
 +III. ATTACK BY STRATAGEM
 +
 +
 + 1. Sun Tzu said:  In the practical art of war, the best
 +    thing of all is to take the enemy'​s country whole and intact;
 +    to shatter and destroy it is not so good.  So, too, it is
 +    better to recapture an army entire than to destroy it,
 +    to capture a regiment, a detachment or a company entire
 +    than to destroy them.
 +
 + 2. Hence to fight and conquer in all your battles
 +    is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists
 +    in breaking the enemy'​s resistance without fighting.
 +
 + 3. Thus the highest form of generalship is to
 +    balk the enemy'​s plans; the next best is to prevent
 +    the junction of the enemy'​s forces; the next in
 +    order is to attack the enemy'​s army in the field;
 +    and the worst policy of all is to besiege walled cities.
 +
 + 4. The rule is, not to besiege walled cities if it
 +    can possibly be avoided. ​ The preparation of mantlets,
 +    movable shelters, and various implements of war, will take
 +    up three whole months; and the piling up of mounds over
 +    against the walls will take three months more.
 +
 + 5. The general, unable to control his irritation,
 +    will launch his men to the assault like swarming ants,
 +    with the result that one-third of his men are slain,
 +    while the town still remains untaken. ​ Such are the disastrous
 +    effects of a siege.
 +
 + 6. Therefore the skillful leader subdues the enemy'​s
 +    troops without any fighting; he captures their cities
 +    without laying siege to them; he overthrows their kingdom
 +    without lengthy operations in the field.
 +
 + 7. With his forces intact he will dispute the mastery
 +    of the Empire, and thus, without losing a man, his triumph
 +    will be complete. ​ This is the method of attacking by stratagem.
 +
 + 8. It is the rule in war, if our forces are ten
 +    to the enemy'​s one, to surround him; if five to one,
 +    to attack him; if twice as numerous, to divide our army
 +    into two.
 +
 + 9. If equally matched, we can offer battle;
 +    if slightly inferior in numbers, we can avoid the enemy;
 +    if quite unequal in every way, we can flee from him.
 +
 +10. Hence, though an obstinate fight may be made
 +    by a small force, in the end it must be captured
 +    by the larger force.
 +
 +11. Now the general is the bulwark of the State;
 +    if the bulwark is complete at all points; the State will
 +    be strong; if the bulwark is defective, the State will
 +    be weak.
 +
 +12. There are three ways in which a ruler can bring
 +    misfortune upon his army:--
 +
 +13. (1) By commanding the army to advance or to retreat,
 +    being ignorant of the fact that it cannot obey. 
 +    This is called hobbling the army.
 +
 +14. (2) By attempting to govern an army in the
 +    same way as he administers a kingdom, being ignorant
 +    of the conditions which obtain in an army.  This causes
 +    restlessness in the soldier'​s minds.
 +
 +15. (3) By employing the officers of his army
 +    without discrimination,​ through ignorance of the
 +    military principle of adaptation to circumstances. ​
 +    This shakes the confidence of the soldiers.
 +
 +16. But when the army is restless and distrustful,​
 +    trouble is sure to come from the other feudal princes. ​
 +    This is simply bringing anarchy into the army, and flinging
 +    victory away.
 +
 +17. Thus we may know that there are five essentials
 +    for victory:
 +    (1) He will win who knows when to fight and when
 +        not to fight.
 +    (2) He will win who knows how to handle both superior
 +        and inferior forces.
 +    (3) He will win whose army is animated by the same
 +        spirit throughout all its ranks.
 +    (4) He will win who, prepared himself, waits to take
 +        the enemy unprepared.
 +    (5) He will win who has military capacity and is
 +        not interfered with by the sovereign.
 +
 +18. Hence the saying: ​ If you know the enemy
 +    and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a
 +    hundred battles. ​ If you know yourself but not the enemy,
 +    for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. ​
 +    If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will
 +    succumb in every battle.
 +[To Chinese text |To Top]
 +
 +
 +
 +<A NAME''"​04"></​A>​
 +IV. TACTICAL DISPOSITIONS
 +
 +
 + 1. Sun Tzu said:  The good fighters of old first put
 +    themselves beyond the possibility of defeat, and then
 +    waited for an opportunity of defeating the enemy.
 +
 + 2. To secure ourselves against defeat lies in our
 +    own hands, but the opportunity of defeating the enemy
 +    is provided by the enemy himself.
 + 3. Thus the good fighter is able to secure himself against defeat,
 +    but cannot make certain of defeating the enemy.
 +
 + 4. Hence the saying: ​ One may know how to conquer
 +    without being able to do it.
 +
 + 5. Security against defeat implies defensive tactics;
 +    ability to defeat the enemy means taking the offensive.
 +
 + 6. Standing on the defensive indicates insufficient
 +    strength; attacking, a superabundance of strength.
 +
 + 7. The general who is skilled in defense hides in the
 +    most secret recesses of the earth; he who is skilled in
 +    attack flashes forth from the topmost heights of heaven. ​
 +    Thus on the one hand we have ability to protect ourselves;
 +    on the other, a victory that is complete.
 +
 + 8. To see victory only when it is within the ken
 +    of the common herd is not the acme of excellence.
 +
 + 9. Neither is it the acme of excellence if you fight
 +    and conquer and the whole Empire says, &​quot;​Well done!&​quot;​
 +
 +10. To lift an autumn hair is no sign of great strength;
 +    to see the sun and moon is no sign of sharp sight;
 +    to hear the noise of thunder is no sign of a quick ear.
 +
 +11. What the ancients called a clever fighter is
 +    one who not only wins, but excels in winning with ease.
 +
 +12. Hence his victories bring him neither reputation
 +    for wisdom nor credit for courage.
 +
 +13. He wins his battles by making no mistakes. ​
 +    Making no mistakes is what establishes the certainty
 +    of victory, for it means conquering an enemy that is
 +    already defeated.
 +
 +14. Hence the skillful fighter puts himself into
 +    a position which makes defeat impossible, and does
 +    not miss the moment for defeating the enemy.
 +
 +15. Thus it is that in war the victorious strategist
 +    only seeks battle after the victory has been won,
 +    whereas he who is destined to defeat first fights
 +    and afterwards looks for victory.
 +
 +16. The consummate leader cultivates the moral law,
 +    and strictly adheres to method and discipline; thus it is
 +    in his power to control success.
 +
 +17. In respect of military method, we have,
 +    firstly, Measurement;​ secondly, Estimation of quantity;
 +    thirdly, Calculation;​ fourthly, Balancing of chances;
 +    fifthly, Victory.
 +
 +18. Measurement owes its existence to Earth;
 +    Estimation of quantity to Measurement;​ Calculation to
 +    Estimation of quantity; Balancing of chances to Calculation;​
 +    and Victory to Balancing of chances.
 +
 +19. A victorious army opposed to a routed one, is as
 +    a pound'​s weight placed in the scale against a single grain.
 +
 +20. The onrush of a conquering force is like the bursting
 +    of pent-up waters into a chasm a thousand fathoms deep.
 +
 +[To Chinese text |To Top]
 +
 +
 +
 +<A NAME''"​05"></​A>​
 +V. ENERGY
 +
 +
 + 1. Sun Tzu said:  The control of a large force
 +    is the same principle as the control of a few men: 
 +    it is merely a question of dividing up their numbers.
 +
 + 2. Fighting with a large army under your command
 +    is nowise different from fighting with a small one: 
 +    it is merely a question of instituting signs and signals.
 +
 + 3. To ensure that your whole host may withstand
 +    the brunt of the enemy'​s attack and remain unshaken--
 +    this is effected by maneuvers direct and indirect.
 +
 + 4. That the impact of your army may be like a grindstone
 +    dashed against an egg--this is effected by the science
 +    of weak points and strong.
 +
 + 5. In all fighting, the direct method may be used
 +    for joining battle, but indirect methods will be needed
 +    in order to secure victory.
 +
 + 6. Indirect tactics, efficiently applied, are inexhaustible
 +    as Heaven and Earth, unending as the flow of rivers and streams;
 +    like the sun and moon, they end but to begin anew;
 +    like the four seasons, they pass away to return once more.
 +
 + 7. There are not more than five musical notes,
 +    yet the combinations of these five give rise to more
 +    melodies than can ever be heard.
 +
 + 8. There are not more than five primary colors
 +    (blue, yellow, red, white, and black), yet in combination
 +    they produce more hues than can ever been seen.
 +
 + 9. There are not more than five cardinal tastes
 +    (sour, acrid, salt, sweet, bitter), yet combinations
 +    of them yield more flavors than can ever be tasted.
 +
 +10. In battle, there are not more than two methods
 +    of attack--the direct and the indirect; yet these two
 +    in combination give rise to an endless series of maneuvers.
 +
 +11. The direct and the indirect lead on to each other in turn. 
 +    It is like moving in a circle--you never come to an end. 
 +    Who can exhaust the possibilities of their combination?​
 +
 +12. The onset of troops is like the rush of a torrent
 +    which will even roll stones along in its course.
 +
 +13. The quality of decision is like the well-timed
 +    swoop of a falcon which enables it to strike and destroy
 +    its victim.
 +
 +14. Therefore the good fighter will be terrible
 +    in his onset, and prompt in his decision.
 +
 +15. Energy may be likened to the bending of a crossbow;
 +    decision, to the releasing of a trigger.
 +
 +16. Amid the turmoil and tumult of battle, there may
 +    be seeming disorder and yet no real disorder at all;
 +    amid confusion and chaos, your array may be without head
 +    or tail, yet it will be proof against defeat.
 +
 +17. Simulated disorder postulates perfect discipline,
 +    simulated fear postulates courage; simulated weakness
 +    postulates strength.
 +
 +18. Hiding order beneath the cloak of disorder is
 +    simply a question of subdivision;​ concealing courage under
 +    a show of timidity presupposes a fund of latent energy;
 +    masking strength with weakness is to be effected
 +    by tactical dispositions.
 +
 +19. Thus one who is skillful at keeping the enemy
 +    on the move maintains deceitful appearances,​ according to
 +    which the enemy will act.  He sacrifices something,
 +    that the enemy may snatch at it.
 +
 +20. By holding out baits, he keeps him on the march;
 +    then with a body of picked men he lies in wait for him.
 +
 +21. The clever combatant looks to the effect of combined
 +    energy, and does not require too much from individuals. ​
 +    Hence his ability to pick out the right men and utilize
 +    combined energy.
 +
 +22. When he utilizes combined energy, his fighting
 +    men become as it were like unto rolling logs or stones. ​
 +    For it is the nature of a log or stone to remain
 +    motionless on level ground, and to move when on a slope;
 +    if four-cornered,​ to come to a standstill, but if
 +    round-shaped,​ to go rolling down.
 +
 +23. Thus the energy developed by good fighting men
 +    is as the momentum of a round stone rolled down a mountain
 +    thousands of feet in height. ​ So much on the subject
 +    of energy.
 +[To Chinese text |To Top]
 +
 +
 +<A NAME''"​06"></​A>​
 +VI. WEAK POINTS AND STRONG
 +
 +
 + 1. Sun Tzu said:  Whoever is first in the field and
 +    awaits the coming of the enemy, will be fresh for the fight;
 +    whoever is second in the field and has to hasten to battle
 +    will arrive exhausted.
 +
 + 2. Therefore the clever combatant imposes his will on
 +    the enemy, but does not allow the enemy'​s will to be imposed on him.
 +
 + 3. By holding out advantages to him, he can cause the enemy
 +    to approach of his own accord; or, by inflicting damage,
 +    he can make it impossible for the enemy to draw near.
 +
 + 4. If the enemy is taking his ease, he can harass him;
 +    if well supplied with food, he can starve him out;
 +    if quietly encamped, he can force him to move.
 +
 + 5. Appear at points which the enemy must hasten to defend;
 +    march swiftly to places where you are not expected.
 +
 + 6. An army may march great distances without distress,
 +    if it marches through country where the enemy is not.
 +
 + 7. You can be sure of succeeding in your attacks
 +    if you only attack places which are undefended.You can
 +    ensure the safety of your defense if you only hold
 +    positions that cannot be attacked.
 +
 + 8. Hence that general is skillful in attack whose
 +    opponent does not know what to defend; and he is skillful
 +    in defense whose opponent does not know what to attack.
 +
 + 9. O divine art of subtlety and secrecy! ​ Through you
 +    we learn to be invisible, through you inaudible;
 +    and hence we can hold the enemy'​s fate in our hands.
 +
 +10. You may advance and be absolutely irresistible,​
 +    if you make for the enemy'​s weak points; you may retire
 +    and be safe from pursuit if your movements are more rapid
 +    than those of the enemy.
 +
 +11. If we wish to fight, the enemy can be forced
 +    to an engagement even though he be sheltered behind a high
 +    rampart and a deep ditch. ​ All we need do is attack
 +    some other place that he will be obliged to relieve.
 +
 +12. If we do not wish to fight, we can prevent
 +    the enemy from engaging us even though the lines
 +    of our encampment be merely traced out on the ground. ​
 +    All we need do is to throw something odd and unaccountable
 +    in his way.
 +
 +13. By discovering the enemy'​s dispositions and remaining
 +    invisible ourselves, we can keep our forces concentrated,​
 +    while the enemy'​s must be divided.
 +
 +14. We can form a single united body, while the
 +    enemy must split up into fractions. ​ Hence there will
 +    be a whole pitted against separate parts of a whole,
 +    which means that we shall be many to the enemy'​s few.
 +
 +15. And if we are able thus to attack an inferior force
 +    with a superior one, our opponents will be in dire straits.
 +
 +16. The spot where we intend to fight must not be
 +    made known; for then the enemy will have to prepare
 +    against a possible attack at several different points;
 +    and his forces being thus distributed in many directions,
 +    the numbers we shall have to face at any given point will
 +    be proportionately few.
 +
 +17. For should the enemy strengthen his van,
 +    he will weaken his rear; should he strengthen his rear,
 +    he will weaken his van; should he strengthen his left,
 +    he will weaken his right; should he strengthen his right,
 +    he will weaken his left.  If he sends reinforcements everywhere,
 +    he will everywhere be weak.
 +
 +18. Numerical weakness comes from having to prepare
 +    against possible attacks; numerical strength, from compelling
 +    our adversary to make these preparations against us.
 +
 +19. Knowing the place and the time of the coming battle,
 +    we may concentrate from the greatest distances in order
 +    to fight.
 +
 +20. But if neither time nor place be known,
 +    then the left wing will be impotent to succor the right,
 +    the right equally impotent to succor the left, the van
 +    unable to relieve the rear, or the rear to support the van. 
 +    How much more so if the furthest portions of the army are
 +    anything under a hundred LI apart, and even the nearest
 +    are separated by several LI!
 +
 +21. Though according to my estimate the soldiers
 +    of Yueh exceed our own in number, that shall advantage
 +    them nothing in the matter of victory. ​ I say then
 +    that victory can be achieved.
 +
 +22. Though the enemy be stronger in numbers, we may
 +    prevent him from fighting. ​ Scheme so as to discover
 +    his plans and the likelihood of their success.
 +
 +23. Rouse him, and learn the principle of his
 +    activity or inactivity. ​ Force him to reveal himself,
 +    so as to find out his vulnerable spots.
 +
 +24. Carefully compare the opposing army with your own,
 +    so that you may know where strength is superabundant
 +    and where it is deficient.
 +
 +25. In making tactical dispositions,​ the highest pitch
 +    you can attain is to conceal them; conceal your dispositions,​
 +    and you will be safe from the prying of the subtlest spies,
 +    from the machinations of the wisest brains.
 +
 +26. How victory may be produced for them out of the enemy'​s
 +    own tactics--that is what the multitude cannot comprehend.
 +
 +27. All men can see the tactics whereby I conquer,
 +    but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory
 +    is evolved.
 +
 +28. Do not repeat the tactics which have gained
 +    you one victory, but let your methods be regulated
 +    by the infinite variety of circumstances.
 +
 +29. Military tactics are like unto water; for water in its
 +    natural course runs away from high places and hastens downwards.
 +
 +30. So in war, the way is to avoid what is strong
 +    and to strike at what is weak.
 +
 +31. Water shapes its course according to the nature
 +    of the ground over which it flows; the soldier works
 +    out his victory in relation to the foe whom he is facing.
 +
 +32. Therefore, just as water retains no constant shape,
 +    so in warfare there are no constant conditions.
 +
 +33. He who can modify his tactics in relation to his
 +    opponent and thereby succeed in winning, may be called
 +    a heaven-born captain.
 +
 +34. The five elements (water, fire, wood, metal, earth)
 +    are not always equally predominant;​ the four seasons make
 +    way for each other in turn.  There are short days and long;
 +    the moon has its periods of waning and waxing.
 +[To Chinese text  |To Top]
 +
 +
 +<A NAME''"​07"></​A>​
 +VII. MANEUVERING
 +
 +
 + 1. Sun Tzu said:  In war, the general receives his
 +    commands from the sovereign.
 +
 + 2. Having collected an army and concentrated his forces,
 +    he must blend and harmonize the different elements thereof
 +    before pitching his camp.
 +
 + 3. After that, comes tactical maneuvering,​
 +    than which there is nothing more difficult. ​
 +    The difficulty of tactical maneuvering consists
 +    in turning the devious into the direct, and misfortune into gain.
 +
 + 4. Thus, to take a long and circuitous route,
 +    after enticing the enemy out of the way, and though starting
 +    after him, to contrive to reach the goal before him,
 +    shows knowledge of the artifice of DEVIATION.
 +
 + 5. Maneuvering with an army is advantageous;​
 +    with an undisciplined multitude, most dangerous.
 +
 + 6. If you set a fully equipped army in march in order
 +    to snatch an advantage, the chances are that you will be
 +    too late.  On the other hand, to detach a flying column
 +    for the purpose involves the sacrifice of its baggage
 +    and stores.
 +
 + 7. Thus, if you order your men to roll up their
 +    buff-coats, and make forced marches without halting day
 +    or night, covering double the usual distance at a stretch,
 +    doing a hundred LI in order to wrest an advantage,
 +    the leaders of all your three divisions will fall into
 +    the hands of the enemy.
 +
 + 8. The stronger men will be in front, the jaded
 +    ones will fall behind, and on this plan only one-tenth
 +    of your army will reach its destination.
 +
 + 9. If you march fifty LI in order to outmaneuver
 +    the enemy, you will lose the leader of your first division,
 +    and only half your force will reach the goal.
 +
 +10. If you march thirty LI with the same object,
 +    two-thirds of your army will arrive.
 +
 +11. We may take it then that an army without its
 +    baggage-train is lost; without provisions it is lost;
 +    without bases of supply it is lost.
 +
 +12. We cannot enter into alliances until we are
 +    acquainted with the designs of our neighbors.
 +
 +13. We are not fit to lead an army on the march
 +    unless we are familiar with the face of the country--its
 +    mountains and forests, its pitfalls and precipices,
 +    its marshes and swamps.
 +
 +14. We shall be unable to turn natural advantage
 +    to account unless we make use of local guides.
 +
 +15. In war, practice dissimulation,​ and you will succeed.
 +
 +16. Whether to concentrate or to divide your troops,
 +    must be decided by circumstances.
 +
 +17. Let your rapidity be that of the wind,
 +    your compactness that of the forest.
 +
 +18. In raiding and plundering be like fire,
 +    is immovability like a mountain.
 +
 +19. Let your plans be dark and impenetrable as night,
 +    and when you move, fall like a thunderbolt.
 +
 +20. When you plunder a countryside,​ let the spoil be
 +    divided amongst your men; when you capture new territory,
 +    cut it up into allotments for the benefit of the soldiery.
 +
 +21. Ponder and deliberate before you make a move.
 +
 +22. He will conquer who has learnt the artifice
 +    of deviation. ​ Such is the art of maneuvering.
 +
 +23. The Book of Army Management says:  On the field
 +    of battle, the spoken word does not carry far enough: ​
 +    hence the institution of gongs and drums. ​ Nor can ordinary
 +    objects be seen clearly enough: ​ hence the institution
 +    of banners and flags.
 +
 +24. Gongs and drums, banners and flags, are means
 +    whereby the ears and eyes of the host may be focused
 +    on one particular point.
 +
 +25. The host thus forming a single united body,
 +    is it impossible either for the brave to advance alone,
 +    or for the cowardly to retreat alone. ​ This is the art
 +    of handling large masses of men.
 +
 +26. In night-fighting,​ then, make much use of signal-fires
 +    and drums, and in fighting by day, of flags and banners,
 +    as a means of influencing the ears and eyes of your army.
 +
 +27. A whole army may be robbed of its spirit;
 +    a commander-in-chief may be robbed of his presence of mind.
 +
 +28. Now a soldier'​s spirit is keenest in the morning;
 +    by noonday it has begun to flag; and in the evening,
 +    his mind is bent only on returning to camp.
 +
 +29. A clever general, therefore, avoids an army when
 +    its spirit is keen, but attacks it when it is sluggish
 +    and inclined to return. ​ This is the art of studying moods.
 +
 +30. Disciplined and calm, to await the appearance
 +    of disorder and hubbub amongst the enemy:​--this is the art
 +    of retaining self-possession.
 +
 +31. To be near the goal while the enemy is still
 +    far from it, to wait at ease while the enemy is
 +    toiling and struggling, to be well-fed while the enemy
 +    is famished:​--this is the art of husbanding one's strength.
 +
 +32. To refrain from intercepting an enemy whose
 +    banners are in perfect order, to refrain from attacking
 +    an army drawn up in calm and confident array:​--this
 +    is the art of studying circumstances.
 +
 +33. It is a military axiom not to advance uphill
 +    against the enemy, nor to oppose him when he comes downhill.
 +
 +34. Do not pursue an enemy who simulates flight;
 +    do not attack soldiers whose temper is keen.
 +
 +35. Do not swallow bait offered by the enemy. ​
 +    Do not interfere with an army that is returning home.
 +
 +36. When you surround an army, leave an outlet free. 
 +    Do not press a desperate foe too hard.
 +
 +37. Such is the art of warfare.
 +[To Chinese text|To Top]
 +
 +
 +<A NAME''"​08"></​A>​
 +VIII. VARIATION IN TACTICS
 +
 +
 + 1. Sun Tzu said:  In war, the general receives
 +    his commands from the sovereign, collects his army
 +    and concentrates his forces
 +
 + 2. When in difficult country, do not encamp. ​ In country
 +    where high roads intersect, join hands with your allies. ​
 +    Do not linger in dangerously isolated positions. ​
 +    In hemmed-in situations, you must resort to stratagem. ​
 +    In desperate position, you must fight.
 +
 + 3. There are roads which must not be followed,
 +    armies which must be not attacked, towns which must
 +    be besieged, positions which must not be contested,
 +    commands of the sovereign which must not be obeyed.
 +
 + 4. The general who thoroughly understands the advantages
 +    that accompany variation of tactics knows how to handle
 +    his troops.
 +
 + 5. The general who does not understand these, may be well
 +    acquainted with the configuration of the country, yet he
 +    will not be able to turn his knowledge to practical account.
 +
 + 6. So, the student of war who is unversed in the art
 +    of war of varying his plans, even though he be acquainted
 +    with the Five Advantages, will fail to make the best use
 +    of his men.
 +
 + 7. Hence in the wise leader'​s plans, considerations of
 +    advantage and of disadvantage will be blended together.
 +
 + 8. If our expectation of advantage be tempered in
 +    this way, we may succeed in accomplishing the essential
 +    part of our schemes.
 +
 + 9. If, on the other hand, in the midst of difficulties
 +    we are always ready to seize an advantage, we may extricate
 +    ourselves from misfortune.
 +
 +10. Reduce the hostile chiefs by inflicting damage
 +    on them; and make trouble for them, and keep them
 +    constantly engaged; hold out specious allurements,​
 +    and make them rush to any given point.
 +
 +11. The art of war teaches us to rely not on the
 +    likelihood of the enemy'​s not coming, but on our own readiness
 +    to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking,
 +    but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.
 +
 +12. There are five dangerous faults which may affect
 +    a general:
 +    (1) Recklessness,​ which leads to destruction;​
 +    (2) cowardice, which leads to capture;
 +    (3) a hasty temper, which can be provoked by insults;
 +    (4) a delicacy of honor which is sensitive to shame;
 +    (5) over-solicitude for his men, which exposes him
 +        to worry and trouble.
 +
 +13. These are the five besetting sins of a general,
 +    ruinous to the conduct of war.
 +
 +14. When an army is overthrown and its leader slain,
 +    the cause will surely be found among these five
 +    dangerous faults. ​ Let them be a subject of meditation.
 +[To Chinese text|To Top]
 +
 +
 +<A NAME''"​09"></​A>​
 +IX.  THE ARMY ON THE MARCH
 +
 +
 + 1. Sun Tzu said:  We come now to the question of
 +    encamping the army, and observing signs of the enemy. ​
 +    Pass quickly over mountains, and keep in the neighborhood
 +    of valleys.
 +
 + 2. Camp in high places, facing the sun.  Do not climb
 +    heights in order to fight. ​ So much for mountain warfare.
 +
 + 3. After crossing a river, you should get far away
 +    from it.
 +
 + 4. When an invading force crosses a river in its
 +    onward march, do not advance to meet it in mid-stream.
 +    It will be best to let half the army get across,
 +    and then deliver your attack.
 +
 + 5. If you are anxious to fight, you should not go
 +    to meet the invader near a river which he has to cross.
 +
 + 6. Moor your craft higher up than the enemy, and facing
 +    the sun.  Do not move up-stream to meet the enemy. ​
 +    So much for river warfare.
 +
 + 7. In crossing salt-marshes,​ your sole concern
 +    should be to get over them quickly, without any delay.
 +
 + 8. If forced to fight in a salt-marsh, you should
 +    have water and grass near you, and get your back
 +    to a clump of trees. ​ So much for operations in salt-marches.
 +
 + 9. In dry, level country, take up an easily accessible
 +    position with rising ground to your right and on your rear,
 +    so that the danger may be in front, and safety lie behind. ​
 +    So much for campaigning in flat country.
 +
 +10. These are the four useful branches of military
 +    knowledge which enabled the Yellow Emperor to vanquish
 +    four several sovereigns.
 +
 +11. All armies prefer high ground to low and sunny
 +    places to dark.
 +
 +12. If you are careful of your men, and camp on hard
 +    ground, the army will be free from disease of every kind,
 +    and this will spell victory.
 +
 +13. When you come to a hill or a bank, occupy the
 +    sunny side, with the slope on your right rear. 
 +    Thus you will at once act for the benefit of your soldiers
 +    and utilize the natural advantages of the ground.
 +
 +14. When, in consequence of heavy rains up-country,
 +    a river which you wish to ford is swollen and flecked
 +    with foam, you must wait until it subsides.
 +
 +15. Country in which there are precipitous cliffs
 +    with torrents running between, deep natural hollows,
 +    confined places, tangled thickets, quagmires and crevasses,
 +    should be left with all possible speed and not approached.
 +
 +16. While we keep away from such places, we should
 +    get the enemy to approach them; while we face them,
 +    we should let the enemy have them on his rear.
 +
 +17. If in the neighborhood of your camp there should
 +    be any hilly country, ponds surrounded by aquatic grass,
 +    hollow basins filled with reeds, or woods with thick
 +    undergrowth,​ they must be carefully routed out and searched;
 +    for these are places where men in ambush or insidious
 +    spies are likely to be lurking.
 +
 +18. When the enemy is close at hand and remains quiet,
 +    he is relying on the natural strength of his position.
 +
 +19. When he keeps aloof and tries to provoke a battle,
 +    he is anxious for the other side to advance.
 +
 +20. If his place of encampment is easy of access,
 +    he is tendering a bait.
 +
 +21. Movement amongst the trees of a forest shows that the
 +    enemy is advancing. ​ The appearance of a number of screens
 +    in the midst of thick grass means that the enemy wants to make us suspicious.
 +
 +22. The rising of birds in their flight is the sign
 +    of an ambuscade. ​ Startled beasts indicate that a sudden
 +    attack is coming.
 +
 +23. When there is dust rising in a high column,
 +    it is the sign of chariots advancing; when the dust is low,
 +    but spread over a wide area, it betokens the approach
 +    of infantry. ​ When it branches out in different directions,
 +    it shows that parties have been sent to collect firewood. ​
 +    A few clouds of dust moving to and fro signify that the army
 +    is encamping.
 +
 +24. Humble words and increased preparations are signs
 +    that the enemy is about to advance. ​ Violent language
 +    and driving forward as if to the attack are signs that he
 +    will retreat.
 +
 +25. When the light chariots come out first and take
 +    up a position on the wings, it is a sign that the enemy
 +    is forming for battle.
 +
 +26. Peace proposals unaccompanied by a sworn covenant
 +    indicate a plot.
 +
 +27. When there is much running about and the soldiers
 +    fall into rank, it means that the critical moment has come.
 +
 +28. When some are seen advancing and some retreating,
 +    it is a lure.
 +
 +29. When the soldiers stand leaning on their spears,
 +    they are faint from want of food.
 +
 +30. If those who are sent to draw water begin
 +    by drinking themselves, the army is suffering from thirst.
 +
 +31. If the enemy sees an advantage to be gained and
 +    makes no effort to secure it, the soldiers are exhausted.
 +
 +32. If birds gather on any spot, it is unoccupied. ​
 +    Clamor by night betokens nervousness.
 +
 +33. If there is disturbance in the camp, the general'​s
 +    authority is weak.  If the banners and flags are shifted
 +    about, sedition is afoot. ​ If the officers are angry,
 +    it means that the men are weary.
 +
 +34. When an army feeds its horses with grain and kills
 +    its cattle for food, and when the men do not hang their
 +    cooking-pots over the camp-fires, showing that they
 +    will not return to their tents, you may know that they
 +    are determined to fight to the death.
 +
 +35. The sight of men whispering together in small
 +    knots or speaking in subdued tones points to disaffection
 +    amongst the rank and file.
 +
 +36. Too frequent rewards signify that the enemy is
 +    at the end of his resources; too many punishments betray
 +    a condition of dire distress.
 +
 +37. To begin by bluster, but afterwards to take fright
 +    at the enemy'​s numbers, shows a supreme lack of intelligence.
 +
 +38. When envoys are sent with compliments in their mouths,
 +    it is a sign that the enemy wishes for a truce.
 +
 +39. If the enemy'​s troops march up angrily and remain
 +    facing ours for a long time without either joining
 +    battle or taking themselves off again, the situation
 +    is one that demands great vigilance and circumspection.
 +
 +40. If our troops are no more in number than the enemy,
 +    that is amply sufficient; it only means that no direct attack
 +    can be made.  What we can do is simply to concentrate all
 +    our available strength, keep a close watch on the enemy,
 +    and obtain reinforcements.
 +
 +41. He who exercises no forethought but makes light
 +    of his opponents is sure to be captured by them.
 +
 +42. If soldiers are punished before they have grown
 +    attached to you, they will not prove submissive; and,
 +    unless submissive, then will be practically useless. ​
 +    If, when the soldiers have become attached to you,
 +    punishments are not enforced, they will still be unless.
 +
 +43. Therefore soldiers must be treated in the first
 +    instance with humanity, but kept under control by means
 +    of iron discipline. ​ This is a certain road to victory.
 +
 +44. If in training soldiers commands are habitually
 +    enforced, the army will be well-disciplined;​ if not,
 +    its discipline will be bad.
 +
 +45. If a general shows confidence in his men but always
 +    insists on his orders being obeyed, the gain will be mutual.
 +[To Chinese text|To Top]
 +
 +
 +<A NAME''"​10"></​A>​
 +
 +X. TERRAIN
 +
 +
 + 1. Sun Tzu said:  We may distinguish six kinds of terrain,
 +    to wit:  (1) Accessible ground; (2) entangling ground;
 +    (3) temporizing ground; (4) narrow passes; (5) precipitous
 +    heights; (6) positions at a great distance from the enemy.
 +
 + 2. Ground which can be freely traversed by both sides
 +    is called accessible.
 +
 + 3. With regard to ground of this nature, be before
 +    the enemy in occupying the raised and sunny spots,
 +    and carefully guard your line of supplies. ​ Then you
 +    will be able to fight with advantage.
 +
 + 4. Ground which can be abandoned but is hard
 +    to re-occupy is called entangling.
 +
 + 5. From a position of this sort, if the enemy
 +    is unprepared, you may sally forth and defeat him. 
 +    But if the enemy is prepared for your coming, and you
 +    fail to defeat him, then, return being impossible,
 +    disaster will ensue.
 +
 + 6. When the position is such that neither side will gain
 +    by making the first move, it is called temporizing ground.
 +
 + 7. In a position of this sort, even though the enemy
 +    should offer us an attractive bait, it will be advisable
 +    not to stir forth, but rather to retreat, thus enticing
 +    the enemy in his turn; then, when part of his army has
 +    come out, we may deliver our attack with advantage.
 +
 + 8. With regard to narrow passes, if you can occupy
 +    them first, let them be strongly garrisoned and await
 +    the advent of the enemy.
 +
 + 9. Should the army forestall you in occupying a pass,
 +    do not go after him if the pass is fully garrisoned,
 +    but only if it is weakly garrisoned.
 +
 +10. With regard to precipitous heights, if you are
 +    beforehand with your adversary, you should occupy the
 +    raised and sunny spots, and there wait for him to come up.
 +
 +11. If the enemy has occupied them before you,
 +    do not follow him, but retreat and try to entice him away.
 +
 +12. If you are situated at a great distance from
 +    the enemy, and the strength of the two armies is equal,
 +    it is not easy to provoke a battle, and fighting will be
 +    to your disadvantage.
 +
 +13. These six are the principles connected with Earth. ​
 +    The general who has attained a responsible post must be
 +    careful to study them.
 +
 +14. Now an army is exposed to six several calamities,
 +    not arising from natural causes, but from faults
 +    for which the general is responsible. ​ These are: 
 +    (1) Flight; (2) insubordination;​ (3) collapse; (4) ruin;
 +    (5) disorganization;​ (6) rout.
 +
 +15. Other conditions being equal, if one force is
 +    hurled against another ten times its size, the result
 +    will be the flight of the former.
 +
 +16. When the common soldiers are too strong and
 +    their officers too weak, the result is insubordination. ​
 +    When the officers are too strong and the common soldiers
 +    too weak, the result is collapse.
 +
 +17. When the higher officers are angry and insubordinate,​
 +    and on meeting the enemy give battle on their own account
 +    from a feeling of resentment, before the commander-in-chief
 +    can tell whether or no he is in a position to fight,
 +    the result is ruin.
 +
 +18. When the general is weak and without authority;
 +    when his orders are not clear and distinct; when there
 +    are no fixes duties assigned to officers and men,
 +    and the ranks are formed in a slovenly haphazard manner,
 +    the result is utter disorganization.
 +
 +19. When a general, unable to estimate the enemy'​s
 +    strength, allows an inferior force to engage a larger one,
 +    or hurls a weak detachment against a powerful one,
 +    and neglects to place picked soldiers in the front rank,
 +    the result must be rout.
 +
 +20. These are six ways of courting defeat, which must
 +    be carefully noted by the general who has attained
 +    a responsible post.
 +
 +21. The natural formation of the country is the soldier'​s
 +    best ally; but a power of estimating the adversary,
 +    of controlling the forces of victory, and of shrewdly
 +    calculating difficulties,​ dangers and distances,
 +    constitutes the test of a great general.
 +
 +22. He who knows these things, and in fighting puts
 +    his knowledge into practice, will win his battles. ​
 +    He who knows them not, nor practices them, will surely
 +    be defeated.
 +
 +23. If fighting is sure to result in victory,
 +    then you must fight, even though the ruler forbid it;
 +    if fighting will not result in victory, then you must not
 +    fight even at the ruler'​s bidding.
 +
 +24. The general who advances without coveting fame
 +    and retreats without fearing disgrace, whose only
 +    thought is to protect his country and do good service
 +    for his sovereign, is the jewel of the kingdom.
 +
 +25. Regard your soldiers as your children, and they
 +    will follow you into the deepest valleys; look upon them
 +    as your own beloved sons, and they will stand by you
 +    even unto death.
 +
 +26. If, however, you are indulgent, but unable to make
 +    your authority felt; kind-hearted,​ but unable to enforce
 +    your commands; and incapable, moreover, of quelling disorder: ​
 +    then your soldiers must be likened to spoilt children;
 +    they are useless for any practical purpose.
 +
 +27. If we know that our own men are in a condition
 +    to attack, but are unaware that the enemy is not open
 +    to attack, we have gone only halfway towards victory.
 +
 +28. If we know that the enemy is open to attack,
 +    but are unaware that our own men are not in a condition
 +    to attack, we have gone only halfway towards victory.
 +
 +29. If we know that the enemy is open to attack,
 +    and also know that our men are in a condition to attack,
 +    but are unaware that the nature of the ground makes
 +    fighting impracticable,​ we have still gone only halfway
 +    towards victory.
 +
 +30. Hence the experienced soldier, once in motion,
 +    is never bewildered; once he has broken camp, he is never
 +    at a loss.
 +
 +31. Hence the saying: ​ If you know the enemy and
 +    know yourself, your victory will not stand in doubt;
 +    if you know Heaven and know Earth, you may make your
 +    victory complete.
 +[To Chinese text|To Top]
 +
 +
 +
 +<A NAME''"​11"></​A>​
 +XI. THE NINE SITUATIONS
 +
 +
 + 1. Sun Tzu said:  The art of war recognizes nine varieties of ground:
 +    (1) Dispersive ground; (2) facile ground; (3) contentious ground;
 +    (4) open ground; (5) ground of intersecting highways;
 +    (6) serious ground; (7) difficult ground; (8) hemmed-in ground;
 +    (9) desperate ground.
 +
 + 2. When a chieftain is fighting in his own territory,
 +    it is dispersive ground.
 +
 + 3. When he has penetrated into hostile territory,
 +    but to no great distance, it is facile ground.
 +
 + 4. Ground the possession of which imports great
 +    advantage to either side, is contentious ground.
 +
 + 5. Ground on which each side has liberty of movement
 +    is open ground.
 +
 + 6. Ground which forms the key to three contiguous states,
 +    so that he who occupies it first has most of the Empire
 +    at his command, is a ground of intersecting highways.
 +
 + 7. When an army has penetrated into the heart of a
 +    hostile country, leaving a number of fortified cities
 +    in its rear, it is serious ground.
 +
 + 8. Mountain forests, rugged steeps, marshes and fens--all
 +    country that is hard to traverse: ​ this is difficult ground.
 +
 + 9. Ground which is reached through narrow gorges,
 +    and from which we can only retire by tortuous paths,
 +    so that a small number of the enemy would suffice to crush
 +    a large body of our men:  this is hemmed in ground.
 +
 +10. Ground on which we can only be saved from
 +    destruction by fighting without delay, is desperate ground.
 +
 +11. On dispersive ground, therefore, fight not. 
 +    On facile ground, halt not.  On contentious ground,
 +    attack not.
 +
 +12. On open ground, do not try to block the enemy'​s way. 
 +    On the ground of intersecting highways, join hands
 +    with your allies.
 +
 +13. On serious ground, gather in plunder. ​
 +    In difficult ground, keep steadily on the march.
 +
 +14. On hemmed-in ground, resort to stratagem. ​
 +    On desperate ground, fight.
 +
 +15. Those who were called skillful leaders of old knew
 +    how to drive a wedge between the enemy'​s front and rear;
 +    to prevent co-operation between his large and small divisions;
 +    to hinder the good troops from rescuing the bad,
 +    the officers from rallying their men.
 +
 +16. When the enemy'​s men were united, they managed
 +    to keep them in disorder.
 +
 +17. When it was to their advantage, they made
 +    a forward move; when otherwise, they stopped still.
 +
 +18. If asked how to cope with a great host of the enemy
 +    in orderly array and on the point of marching to the attack,
 +    I should say:  &​quot;​Begin by seizing something which your
 +    opponent holds dear; then he will be amenable to your will.&​quot;​
 +
 +19. Rapidity is the essence of war:  take advantage of
 +    the enemy'​s unreadiness,​ make your way by unexpected routes,
 +    and attack unguarded spots.
 +
 +20. The following are the principles to be observed
 +    by an invading force: ​ The further you penetrate into
 +    a country, the greater will be the solidarity of your troops,
 +    and thus the defenders will not prevail against you.
 +
 +21. Make forays in fertile country in order to supply
 +    your army with food.
 +
 +22. Carefully study the well-being of your men,
 +    and do not overtax them.  Concentrate your energy and hoard
 +    your strength. ​ Keep your army continually on the move,
 +    and devise unfathomable plans.
 +
 +23. Throw your soldiers into positions whence there
 +    is no escape, and they will prefer death to flight. ​
 +    If they will face death, there is nothing they may
 +    not achieve. ​ Officers and men alike will put forth
 +    their uttermost strength.
 +
 +24. Soldiers when in desperate straits lose
 +    the sense of fear.  If there is no place of refuge,
 +    they will stand firm.  If they are in hostile country,
 +    they will show a stubborn front. ​ If there is no help
 +    for it, they will fight hard.
 +
 +25. Thus, without waiting to be marshaled, the soldiers
 +    will be constantly on the qui vive; without waiting to
 +    be asked, they will do your will; without restrictions,​
 +    they will be faithful; without giving orders, they can
 +    be trusted.
 +
 +26. Prohibit the taking of omens, and do away with
 +    superstitious doubts. ​ Then, until death itself comes,
 +    no calamity need be feared.
 +
 +27. If our soldiers are not overburdened with money,
 +    it is not because they have a distaste for riches;
 +    if their lives are not unduly long, it is not because they
 +    are disinclined to longevity.
 +
 +28. On the day they are ordered out to battle,
 +    your soldiers may weep, those sitting up bedewing
 +    their garments, and those lying down letting the tears run
 +    down their cheeks. ​ But let them once be brought to bay,
 +    and they will display the courage of a Chu or a Kuei.
 +
 +29. The skillful tactician may be likened to the
 +    shuai-jan. Now the shuai-jan is a snake that is found
 +    in the ChUng mountains. ​ Strike at its head, and you
 +    will be attacked by its tail; strike at its tail, and you
 +    will be attacked by its head; strike at its middle,
 +    and you will be attacked by head and tail both.
 +
 +30. Asked if an army can be made to imitate the shuai-jan,
 +    I should answer, Yes.  For the men of Wu and the men
 +    of Yueh are enemies; yet if they are crossing a river
 +    in the same boat and are caught by a storm, they will come
 +    to each other'​s assistance just as the left hand helps the right.
 +
 +31. Hence it is not enough to put one's trust
 +    in the tethering of horses, and the burying of chariot
 +    wheels in the ground
 +
 +32. The principle on which to manage an army is to set
 +    up one standard of courage which all must reach.
 +
 +33. How to make the best of both strong and weak--that
 +    is a question involving the proper use of ground.
 +
 +34. Thus the skillful general conducts his army just
 +    as though he were leading a single man, willy-nilly,​ by
 +    the hand.
 +
 +35. It is the business of a general to be quiet and thus
 +    ensure secrecy; upright and just, and thus maintain order.
 +
 +36. He must be able to mystify his officers and men
 +    by false reports and appearances,​ and thus keep them
 +    in total ignorance.
 +
 +37. By altering his arrangements and changing
 +    his plans, he keeps the enemy without definite knowledge. ​
 +    By shifting his camp and taking circuitous routes,
 +    he prevents the enemy from anticipating his purpose.
 +
 +38. At the critical moment, the leader of an army
 +    acts like one who has climbed up a height and then kicks
 +    away the ladder behind him.  He carries his men deep
 +    into hostile territory before he shows his hand.
 +
 +39. He burns his boats and breaks his cooking-pots;​
 +    like a shepherd driving a flock of sheep, he drives
 +    his men this way and that, and nothing knows whither he
 +    is going.
 +
 +40. To muster his host and bring it into danger:​--this
 +    may be termed the business of the general.
 +
 +41. The different measures suited to the nine
 +    varieties of ground; the expediency of aggressive or
 +    defensive tactics; and the fundamental laws of human nature: ​
 +    these are things that must most certainly be studied.
 +
 +42. When invading hostile territory, the general
 +    principle is, that penetrating deeply brings cohesion;
 +    penetrating but a short way means dispersion.
 +
 +43. When you leave your own country behind, and take
 +    your army across neighborhood territory, you find yourself
 +    on critical ground. ​ When there are means of communication
 +    on all four sides, the ground is one of intersecting highways.
 +
 +44. When you penetrate deeply into a country, it is
 +    serious ground. ​ When you penetrate but a little way,
 +    it is facile ground.
 +
 +45. When you have the enemy'​s strongholds on your rear,
 +    and narrow passes in front, it is hemmed-in ground. ​
 +    When there is no place of refuge at all, it is desperate ground.
 +
 +46. Therefore, on dispersive ground, I would inspire
 +    my men with unity of purpose. ​ On facile ground, I would
 +    see that there is close connection between all parts
 +    of my army.
 +
 +47. On contentious ground, I would hurry up my rear.
 +
 +48. On open ground, I would keep a vigilant eye
 +    on my defenses. ​ On ground of intersecting highways,
 +    I would consolidate my alliances.
 +
 +49. On serious ground, I would try to ensure
 +    a continuous stream of supplies. ​ On difficult ground,
 +    I would keep pushing on along the road.
 +
 +50. On hemmed-in ground, I would block any way
 +    of retreat. ​ On desperate ground, I would proclaim
 +    to my soldiers the hopelessness of saving their lives.
 +
 +51. For it is the soldier'​s disposition to offer
 +    an obstinate resistance when surrounded, to fight hard
 +    when he cannot help himself, and to obey promptly when he
 +    has fallen into danger.
 +
 +52. We cannot enter into alliance with neighboring
 +    princes until we are acquainted with their designs. ​ We are
 +    not fit to lead an army on the march unless we are familiar
 +    with the face of the country--its mountains and forests,
 +    its pitfalls and precipices, its marshes and swamps. ​
 +    We shall be unable to turn natural advantages to account
 +    unless we make use of local guides.
 +
 +53. To be ignored of any one of the following four
 +    or five principles does not befit a warlike prince.
 +
 +54. When a warlike prince attacks a powerful state,
 +    his generalship shows itself in preventing the concentration
 +    of the enemy'​s forces. ​ He overawes his opponents,
 +    and their allies are prevented from joining against him.
 +
 +55. Hence he does not strive to ally himself with all
 +    and sundry, nor does he foster the power of other states. ​
 +    He carries out his own secret designs, keeping his
 +    antagonists in awe.  Thus he is able to capture their
 +    cities and overthrow their kingdoms.
 +
 +56. Bestow rewards without regard to rule,
 +    issue orders without regard to previous arrangements;​
 +    and you will be able to handle a whole army as though
 +    you had to do with but a single man.
 +
 +57. Confront your soldiers with the deed itself;
 +    never let them know your design. ​ When the outlook is bright,
 +    bring it before their eyes; but tell them nothing when
 +    the situation is gloomy.
 +
 +58. Place your army in deadly peril, and it will survive;
 +    plunge it into desperate straits, and it will come off
 +    in safety.
 +
 +59. For it is precisely when a force has fallen into
 +    harm's way that is capable of striking a blow for victory.
 +
 +60. Success in warfare is gained by carefully
 +    accommodating ourselves to the enemy'​s purpose.
 +
 +61. By persistently hanging on the enemy'​s flank, we shall
 +    succeed in the long run in killing the commander-in-chief.
 +
 +62. This is called ability to accomplish a thing
 +    by sheer cunning.
 +
 +63. On the day that you take up your command,
 +    block the frontier passes, destroy the official tallies,
 +    and stop the passage of all emissaries.
 +
 +64. Be stern in the council-chamber,​ so that you
 +    may control the situation.
 +
 +65. If the enemy leaves a door open, you must rush in.
 +
 +66. Forestall your opponent by seizing what he holds dear,
 +    and subtly contrive to time his arrival on the ground.
 +
 +67. Walk in the path defined by rule, and accommodate
 +    yourself to the enemy until you can fight a decisive battle.
 +
 +68. At first, then, exhibit the coyness of a maiden,
 +    until the enemy gives you an opening; afterwards emulate
 +    the rapidity of a running hare, and it will be too late
 +    for the enemy to oppose you.
 +[To Chinese text|To Top]
 +
 +<A NAME''"​12"></​A>​
 +
 +XII. THE ATTACK BY FIRE
 +
 +
 + 1. Sun Tzu said:  There are five ways of attacking
 +    with fire.  The first is to burn soldiers in their camp;
 +    the second is to burn stores; the third is to burn
 +    baggage trains; the fourth is to burn arsenals and magazines;
 +    the fifth is to hurl dropping fire amongst the enemy.
 +
 + 2. In order to carry out an attack, we must have
 +    means available. ​ The material for raising fire should
 +    always be kept in readiness.
 +
 + 3. There is a proper season for making attacks with fire,
 +    and special days for starting a conflagration.
 +
 + 4. The proper season is when the weather is very dry;
 +    the special days are those when the moon is in the
 +    constellations of the Sieve, the Wall, the Wing
 +    or the Cross-bar; for these four are all days of rising wind.
 +
 + 5. In attacking with fire, one should be prepared
 +    to meet five possible developments:​
 +
 + 6. (1) When fire breaks out inside to enemy'​s camp,
 +    respond at once with an attack from without.
 +
 + 7. (2) If there is an outbreak of fire, but the enemy'​s
 +    soldiers remain quiet, bide your time and do not attack.
 +
 + 8. (3) When the force of the flames has reached its height,
 +    follow it up with an attack, if that is practicable;​
 +    if not, stay where you are.
 +
 + 9. (4) If it is possible to make an assault with fire
 +    from without, do not wait for it to break out within,
 +    but deliver your attack at a favorable moment.
 +
 +10. (5) When you start a fire, be to windward of it. 
 +    Do not attack from the leeward.
 +
 +11. A wind that rises in the daytime lasts long,
 +    but a night breeze soon falls.
 +
 +12. In every army, the five developments connected with
 +    fire must be known, the movements of the stars calculated,
 +    and a watch kept for the proper days.
 +
 +13. Hence those who use fire as an aid to the attack show intelligence;​
 +    those who use water as an aid to the attack gain an accession of strength.
 +
 +14. By means of water, an enemy may be intercepted,​
 +    but not robbed of all his belongings.
 +
 +15. Unhappy is the fate of one who tries to win his
 +    battles and succeed in his attacks without cultivating
 +    the spirit of enterprise; for the result is waste of time
 +    and general stagnation.
 +
 +16. Hence the saying: ​ The enlightened ruler lays his
 +    plans well ahead; the good general cultivates his resources.
 +
 +17. Move not unless you see an advantage; use not
 +    your troops unless there is something to be gained;
 +    fight not unless the position is critical.
 +
 +18. No ruler should put troops into the field merely
 +    to gratify his own spleen; no general should fight
 +    a battle simply out of pique.
 +
 +19. If it is to your advantage, make a forward move;
 +    if not, stay where you are.
 +
 +20. Anger may in time change to gladness; vexation may
 +    be succeeded by content.
 +
 +21. But a kingdom that has once been destroyed can
 +    never come again into being; nor can the dead ever
 +    be brought back to life.
 +
 +22. Hence the enlightened ruler is heedful,
 +    and the good general full of caution. ​ This is the way
 +    to keep a country at peace and an army intact.
 +[To Chinese text|To Top]
 +
 +
 +<A NAME''"​13"></​A>​
 +XIII. THE USE OF SPIES
 +
 +
 + 1. Sun Tzu said:  Raising a host of a hundred thousand
 +    men and marching them great distances entails heavy loss
 +    on the people and a drain on the resources of the State. ​
 +    The daily expenditure will amount to a thousand ounces
 +    of silver. ​ There will be commotion at home and abroad,
 +    and men will drop down exhausted on the highways. ​
 +    As many as seven hundred thousand families will be impeded
 +    in their labor.
 +
 + 2. Hostile armies may face each other for years,
 +    striving for the victory which is decided in a single day. 
 +    This being so, to remain in ignorance of the enemy'​s
 +    condition simply because one grudges the outlay of a hundred
 +    ounces of silver in honors and emoluments, is the height
 +    of inhumanity.
 +
 + 3. One who acts thus is no leader of men, no present
 +    help to his sovereign, no master of victory.
 +
 + 4. Thus, what enables the wise sovereign and the good
 +    general to strike and conquer, and achieve things beyond
 +    the reach of ordinary men, is foreknowledge.
 +
 + 5. Now this foreknowledge cannot be elicited from spirits;
 +    it cannot be obtained inductively from experience,
 +    nor by any deductive calculation.
 +
 + 6. Knowledge of the enemy'​s dispositions can only
 +    be obtained from other men.
 +
 + 7. Hence the use of spies, of whom there are five classes: ​
 +    (1) Local spies; (2) inward spies; (3) converted spies;
 +    (4) doomed spies; (5) surviving spies.
 +
 + 8. When these five kinds of spy are all at work,
 +    none can discover the secret system. ​ This is called &​quot;​divine
 +    manipulation of the threads.&​quot; ​ It is the sovereign'​s
 +    most precious faculty.
 +
 + 9. Having local spies means employing the services
 +    of the inhabitants of a district.
 +
 +10. Having inward spies, making use of officials
 +    of the enemy.
 +
 +11. Having converted spies, getting hold of the enemy'​s
 +    spies and using them for our own purposes.
 +
 +12. Having doomed spies, doing certain things openly
 +    for purposes of deception, and allowing our spies to know
 +    of them and report them to the enemy.
 +
 +13. Surviving spies, finally, are those who bring
 +    back news from the enemy'​s camp.
 +
 +14. Hence it is that which none in the whole army are
 +    more intimate relations to be maintained than with spies. ​
 +    None should be more liberally rewarded. ​ In no other
 +    business should greater secrecy be preserved.
 +
 +15. Spies cannot be usefully employed without a certain
 +    intuitive sagacity.
 +
 +16. They cannot be properly managed without benevolence
 +    and straightforwardness.
 +
 +17. Without subtle ingenuity of mind, one cannot make
 +    certain of the truth of their reports.
 +
 +18. Be subtle! be subtle! and use your spies for every
 +    kind of business.
 +
 +19. If a secret piece of news is divulged by a spy
 +    before the time is ripe, he must be put to death together
 +    with the man to whom the secret was told.
 +
 +20. Whether the object be to crush an army, to storm
 +    a city, or to assassinate an individual, it is always
 +    necessary to begin by finding out the names of the attendants,
 +    the aides-de-camp,​ and door-keepers and sentries of the general
 +    in command. ​ Our spies must be commissioned to ascertain these.
 +
 +21. The enemy'​s spies who have come to spy on us
 +    must be sought out, tempted with bribes, led away and
 +    comfortably housed. ​ Thus they will become converted
 +    spies and available for our service.
 +
 +22. It is through the information brought by the
 +    converted spy that we are able to acquire and employ
 +    local and inward spies.
 +
 +23. It is owing to his information,​ again, that we can
 +    cause the doomed spy to carry false tidings to the enemy.
 +
 +24. Lastly, it is by his information that the surviving
 +    spy can be used on appointed occasions.
 +
 +25. The end and aim of spying in all its five varieties
 +    is knowledge of the enemy; and this knowledge can only
 +    be derived, in the first instance, from the converted spy. 
 +    Hence it is essential that the converted spy be treated
 +    with the utmost liberality.
 +
 +26. Of old, the rise of the Yin dynasty was due to I
 +    Chih who had served under the Hsia.  Likewise, the rise
 +    of the Chou dynasty was due to Lu Ya who had served
 +    under the Yin.
 +
 +27. Hence it is only the enlightened ruler and the
 +    wise general who will use the highest intelligence of
 +    the army for purposes of spying and thereby they achieve
 +    great results. ​ Spies are a most important element in water,
 +    because on them depends an army's ability to move.
 +[To Chinese text|To Top]
 +
 +
 +[END - Sun Tzu on the Art of War, text-only]</​code><​P STYLE''"​margin-bottom:​ 0in">​
 +
 +<BR>
 +</P>
 +
 +
 +
 +-- Main.FredPettis - 16 May 2008
artofwar.txt ยท Last modified: 2013/01/27 21:29 (external edit)